Questions You Should be Asking the World Around You
70 AD – The Second Temple is sacked by the Roman Emperor Titus. Jews were expelled to Yavne, (Central Palestine), and Pella, (Greece).
70 – 130 AD – The Jewish population in Palestine nearly went extinct during the Jewish revolt against the Roman Empire. Samaritans, (Levantine Jews), and Byzantine Christians stuck around during this period.
132 AD – The Roman Emperor Hadrian forms Syria Palaestina by merging Ludaea, Galilee, and Paralia.
259 – 272 AD – The Syrian King Odaenathus conquers Palestine.
276 AD – Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius retakes Palestine.
300 – 337 AD – Christian Roman Emperor Constantine begins the Christianization of the Roman empire. Christian churches were then built in Palestine.
474- 491 AD – Samaritan Revolt. Samaritans and Christians clash. Christians were persecuted during this period. Roman Emperor Zeno cracks down on the rebels and the Samaritans were defeated.
495 AD – Samaritan Revolt 2. Samaritans hunted down and massacred Christians. Byzantine governor Edessa cracks down on the rebels and defeats the Samaritans.
529 – 531 AD – Samaritan Revolt 3. Samaritans hunted and massacred Christians. Christians were persecuted during this period. The Palestine armies, and the Ghassanids (Christian Arabs from the south) joined forces to defeat the rebels. The Samaritan leader was captured and killed. Byzantine/Roman Emperor Justinian 1 bans the Samaritan religion.
556 – 572 AD – Samaritan Revolt 4. Samaritans (Levantine Jews), and Palestinian Jews again started killing Christians. Christian churches were looted and burned. The Church of the Nativity was destroyed in this period. Clashes and conflict continued all the way to the 7th century.
614 AD – The Persian Empire (Iran) successfully expands into the Palestine area. The Sassanids conquer Palestine.
629 AD – The Byzantine/Roman Emperor Heraclius defeats the Sassanids, and restores the True Cross of Jesus Christ to Jerusalem.
630 AD – Islam conquers the Levant (Syria, Iraq). The Islamic Caliphate is formed. During this time, the Palestinian population, numbering to about 700k, were 15% Jew, 10% Samaritan and 75% Christian, (roughly). The Samaritans emmigrated to Egypt and Damascus (Syria). The Samaritans converted to Islam, but were considered “half blood,” and thus were persecuted. Biblical Jews and Christians remained in Palestine.
634 AD – The Islamic Caliphate begins their conquest of the entire region. The Byzantines were defeated.
650 AD – Levant Islam and Arabian Islam defeats the Persian Empire.
691 AD – The Dome of the Rock is constructed. The Dome of the Rock is a significant Islamic architectural symbol. It marks the Arabian conquest of the fertile lands of Palestine. The Christian population of Palestine remains dominant from the 7th century, all the way to the 12th century.
691 – 700 AD – Christians and Jews lived harmoniously with the Islamic Arabs under the “Ummayad Dynasty.” They were allowed significant autonomy, and their laws were enforced internally, but they paid taxes to the Islamic Caliphate. Syria remained largely Christian. Byzantine Christians were permitted to become lawmakers. Christians and Islamic Arabs intermarried. Trade and economy improved and stabilized during this period.
878 AD – Egypt takes over Palestine. Egyptian rulers started hyping up Jerusalem as the cool place to be buried, thus Jerusalem started gaining lots of social status.
970 AD – Fatmids, a Shia Islamic caliphate, invades Palestine. Embedded with the Fatmids were large North African Armies called the Berbers, (Sunni and Shia Libyans). The name “Berber” stems from the greek word “barbaros,” which means barbaric.
Wars began to boil in successive fury. Palestinian jews were targetted. The land was consumed in chaos until the Persians intervened.
1071 – 1073 AD – Sunni Persian Turks intervene. Palestine was saved. The Artuqids (Turkey) controlled Jerusalem until 1098.
1098 AD – Fatmids retake Palestine and fuck everything up again.
1099 AD – The Crusaders step in and destroys the Fatmids. The Crusaders manage to rule Palestine for about 100 years.
1187 AD – Saladin, a Kurdish Sunni and the first sultan of Egypt and Syria, enters Tiberias. Saladin defeats the Crusaders and takes Palestine. The Ayyubids (Kurds) were given control of Palestine.
1190 AD – France, England, and the Holy Roman Empire, (Central Europe), were called upon by the pope to fight the Ayyubids. The pope was Gregory VIII, (Italy). Frederick Barbosa was the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Barbosa and Gregory did not get along, and the Holy Roman Empire and the Papacy were constantly clashing.
Phillip Augustus was the King of France. Richard the Lionheart was the king of England.
The Crusaders were successful in capturing the coastal cities of Palestine. Acre, was taken by the Crusaders, and 2,700 muslim inhabitants were massacred. The Crusaders and the Ayyubids continued to clash all the way to the 13th century.
1229 AD – A deal was Struck between Egypt and the Crusaders, which ceded control of Jerusalem over to the Crusaders, for a period of 10 years. This was to provide a buffer zone between the warring Ayyubid states of Syria and Egypt.
In the agreement, Christians were given military control of Jerusalem, while Muslims were given control over the Islamic holy sections in the city.
This was a period of war between Syria vs Egypt, and with Palestine being in the middle.
Next, we fast forward to the last century.
End of Part 2
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